Friday, August 28, 2020
t American Economic Association Competition among Private and Public Schools, Vouchers, and Peer-Group Effects Author(s): Dennis Epple and Richard E. Romano Source: The American Economic Review, Vol. 88, No. 1 (Mar. , 1998), pp. 33-62 Published by: American Economic Association Stable URL: http://www. jstor. organization/stable/116817 . Gotten to: 01/02/2011 12:55 Your utilization of the JSTOR document demonstrates your acknowledgment of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, accessible at . http://www. jstor. organization/page/data/about/arrangements/terms. jsp.JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use gives, to some degree, that except if you have gotten earlier authorization, you may not download a whole issue of a diary or various duplicates of articles, and you may utilize content in the JSTOR document just for your own, non-business use. It would be ideal if you contact the distributer with respect to any further utilization of this work. Distributer contact data might be acquired at . http://www. jstor. organization/activity/showPublisher? publisherCode=aea. . Each duplicate of any piece of a JSTOR transmission must contain a similar copyright notice that shows up on the screen or printed page of such transmission.JSTOR is a not-revenue driven assistance that helps researchers, scientists, and understudies find, use, and expand upon a wide scope of substance in a confided in computerized file. We use data innovation and instruments to expand profitability and encourage new types of grant. For more data about JSTOR, if you don't mind contact [emailÃ¢ protected] organization. American Economic Association is teaming up with JSTOR to digitize, save and stretch out access to The American Economic Review. http://www. jstor. organization CompetitionBetween Privateand Public Schools, Vouchers, and Peer-GroupEffectsBy DENNIS EPPLE AND RICHARD E. ROMANO* A hypothetical and computational model with charge financed, educational cost free state funded schools and serious, e ducational cost financedprivate schools is created. Understudies vary by capacity and pay. Accomplishment relies upon own capacity and on companions' capacities. Balance has a severe chain of importance of school characteristics and twodimensional understudy arranging with delineation by capacity and pay. In non-public schools, high-capacity, low-pay understudies get educational cost limits, while lowability, high-salary understudies pay educational cost premia.Tuition vouchers increment the overall size of the private part and the degree of understudy arranging, and advantage high-capacity understudies comparative with low-capacity understudies. (JEL H42, 128) Discontent in the United States with the essential and optional instructive framework has become the standard. The decrease in SAT scores in the 1970's, embarrassinginternationalcomparisons of understudy accomplishment, slow development in profitability gauges, and expanding uniqueness in income all raise doubt about the natu re of the instructive framework. Ã¢â¬Ë Education strategy figured noticeably in recenit presidential elections.The banter has fixated on issues of school decision, including voucher frameworks (Karen De Witt, 1992). Regular voucher recommendations give understudies going to non-public schools an assessment financed, school-redeemable voucher of fixed sum toward (or conceivably covering) educational cost. Albeit a 1993 California referendumfor vouchers was vanquished, strategy change at state and nearby levels proliferates, as changes in the private instructive division. The province of Minnesota and school regions in 30 states permit inhabitants to pick the government funded school their kids join in. 2The city of Milwaukee presented a voucher framework in the 1989-1990 school year.A - number f private o school and private-government funded school activities are creating (see e. g. , John F. Witte et al. , 1993; Steve Forbes, 1994; Steven Glazerman and RobertH. Meyer, 1994; Joe Na than, 1994; Newsweek, 1994; Wall Street Journal, 1994; Steven Baker, 1995; Jay P. Green et al. , 1996). Instructive change underlining expanded school rivalry with an expanded * Epple: GraduateSchool of IndustrialAdministration, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213; Romano: Department of Economics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611.We significantly value the remarks of Linda Argote, Richard Arnott, Lawrence Kenny, Tracy Lewis, David Sappington, Suzanne Scotchmer, and three unknown officials, notwithstanding workshop members at Carnegie Mellon University, Florida State University, Indiana University, Northwestern University, Princeton University, the University of Chicago, the University of Colorado, the University of Florida, the University of Illinois, the University of Kansas, the University of Virginia, Yale University, the 1993 Public Choice gatherings, and the 1994 American Economic Association meetings.We thank the National Science Foundation, and Romano thanks the Public Policy Research Center at the University of Florida for monetary help. Epple recognizes the supportof Northwestern University, where a portion of this exploration was led. Anv mistakes are our own. 2 Public subsidizing of nonsecular schools and impressive opportunity of school decision has been practicedfor years in England (Daphne Johnson, 1990) and a lot of Canada (Nick Kach and Kas Mazurek, 1986). These decision frameworks bolster even separation in tutoring and shields exist to confine vertical (quality) differentiation.Our investigation is concerned fundamentally with the impacts of a voucher framework on vertical separation. Ã¢â¬ËThe provocatively named report of the National Commission on Excellence in Education (1983), A Nation at Risk, subtleties the decay of execution of U. S. understudies in the 1970's. Later information can be found in Daniel M. Koretz ( 1987). Unobtrusive gains in performanceon normalized accomplishment tests, trailed by a leveling off, well underneath top scores of the mid 1960's, describes the late 1980's and 1990's. 33 34 THE AMERICANECONOMICREVIEW job of the private segment is at the cutting edge of he strategy discussion and late approach activities. The cutting edge financial case for vouchers and expanded instructive decision was made by Milton Friedman (1962). The scholarly instructive and political-theory callings have since thought about the advantages and disadvantages of voucher frameworks and instructive decision (John E. Coons and Stephen D. Sugarman, 1978; Myron Liberman, 1989; John Chubb and Terry Moe, 1990). Monetary examination of the communication among open and non-public schools, and of related strategy instrumentslike vouchers, is just starting to rise. This paper proceeds with the investigation of the Ã¢â¬Å"marketÃ¢â¬ for ducation by building up a model that centers around the interactionbetween the general population and private instructive areas and furthermore looks at the outcome s of vouchers. We depict the balance attributes of the market for training with an open-enrollmentpublic segment and a serious private area. Our model typifies two key components of the instructive procedure. In the first place, understudies contrast in their capacities. Higher capacity is accepted to build an understudy's instructive accomplishment and that of friends in the school joined in. Second, family units contrast in their livelihoods, with higher salary expanding the interest for instructive achievement.A studentin our model is then characterizedby a capacity and a family unit pay, a draw from a ceaseless bivariate conveyance. A school's quality is dictated by the mean capacity of the understudy body, mirroring the model's friend groupeffect. We characterizethe equilibriumdistributionof studenttypes across open and non-public schools and look at the educational cost structure of non-public schools, expecting that understudy types are unquestionable. We build up a hypotheti cal and computational model in equal, with the last aligned to existing appraisals of boundary esteems. Equilibria are recreated for a scope of voucher values.Key characteristicsof an equilibriumare the accompanying. A hierarchyof school characteristics will be available, with the arrangement of (homogeneous) government funded schools having the most minimal capacity peer gathering and an exacting capacity groupranking of non-public schools. The balance understudy assemblages of schools relate to a segment of the capacity pay type space of understudies with MARCH 1998 delineation by pay and, as a rule, stratificationby capacity. As Figure 1 from our computational model outlines, type space is then cut into corner to corner cuts with each higher cut creation up a tuition based school's understudy body and with the base lice involving the open area. The typicality of interest for a decent companion bunch leads moderately high-pay studentsto cross finance the tutoring of generally high -capacity understudies, creating the last parcel. Non-public schools draw in high-capacity, low-salary understudies by offering them educational cost limits, in some cases partnerships. Indeed, even with free passage, schools cost separate by salary against understudies who are not on the edge between exchanging schools. The harmony separation of schools and economies of scale in training block ideal rivalry for each kind of student.Nevertheless, this cost discriminationdoes not disturb the disguise of the companion bunch externality by non-public schools. A harmony without an open division is Paretoefficient given the balance number of schools. Since free government funded schools don't value the companion bunch externality, an equilibriumwith state funded schools is Pareto wasteful. In the computational model, we utilize a Cobb-Douglas detail of utility and instructive accomplishment which incorporatesthe peer-bunch impact. The boundaries are adjusted to U. S. information from dif ferent sources. We process rough equilibria for voucher alues running from $0 to $4,200 per understudy ($4,222 approaches the use per understudy in state funded schools in 1988). Ã¢â¬Ë With no vouchers, the anticipated level of understudies in the open area is 90 percent (the genuine incentive for the United States is 88 percent). As the voucher is expanded, the size of and mean capacity in the open segment decline. With a $2,000 voucher, for instance, the level of understudies remaini
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Prologue to Ideologies Essay Do the assignments in as much detail as you discover important to gain proficiency with the material. Save your notes for study purposes. Results: 1 . To acknowledge different viewpoints in regards to personality and belief system and the connection among independence and the benefit of all. 2. To investigate factors that many impact individual and aggregate convictions and qualities (culture, language, media, relationship to land, condition, sexual orientation, religion( otherworldliness, philosophy). 3. To look at articulations of independence and community and the dynamic among independence and the basic go( contemporary social orders. . To look at qualities of philosophy (translations of history, convictions about human instinct, convictions about the Truckee of society, dreams for the future); the subjects of belief systems (country class, relationship to land, condition, religion, progressivism); and the connection among perspectives and philosophy. 5. To examine independence a nd the benefit of everyone as establishments of belief system. II. Learning Activities Students will finish 7 Learning exercises utilizing this learning guide, the course book Perspectives on Ideology; and various Internet sites. The course reading material Perspectives on Ideology is accessible in the Library. Sick. Assessment Spoon fruition of this learning guide understudies will compose a test in the Test Center comprising of 25 various decision things. Movement l: Consider the accompanying concerning pages 7 18, 23 24 and 49 50 01 Perspectives on Ideology 1 . Quickly distinguish various convictions about human instinct, nature of society, understandings of history and dreams of things to come 2. Clarify what is implied by independence and cooperation. 3. Clarify the job of qualities in impacting individual personality and aggregate objectives. 4. Recognize the variables that impact convictions and qualities. 5. Thoroughly analyze the perspectives on Locke, Hobbes and Rousseau on human instinct. 6. Think about the source on page 13. Whatever degree are the unmistakably European thoughts of Locke and Hobbes dependent on comparable qualities? 7. Depict the significance and job of philosophy in human issues. Establishments OF IDEOLOGY The well known seventeenth C logical way to deal with understanding normal wonder disconnecting, decreasing, analyzing, and isolating was adjusted for utilize a social instrument, a political range with expectations of uncovering the constituent pieces of political conviction. We will compose a custom paper test on Introduction to Ideologies explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom article test on Introduction to Ideologies explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom article test on Introduction to Ideologies explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer A political range is a method of looking at or imagining political convictions by setting them on a hub. The range places conservatism on the right, verbalism focus left and communism left of that. Socialism and Fascism involve positions on the outrageous left and right separately. While the range is an off base proportion of conviction, the accompanying qualities are commonly acknowledged: An accentuation on uniformity is viewed as left-wing and accentuation on freedom is conservative Government monetary interventionism is radical; restricted government is conservative. Availability to change is left-wing; support for custom and the state of affairs is conservative. The Political Spectrum Political thoughts are frequently ordered by their situation on a political Spectrum. The political range originally came into utilization not long after the French Revolution in 1789. (The individuals who sat on the left half of the chamber needed critical change in government; those on the privilege needed practically zero change. ) The Political Spectrum: as a declaration of people groups availability to acknowledge change: NOTE: The articulation business as usual methods the present framework or the status quo now. On the off chance that you want change, at that point that implies changing the state of affairs. In the event that you leave things the manner in which they are, at that point you are keeping up the state of affairs. Business as usual) Radical Moderate Reactionary Radical: A fanatic of the political left. Radicals need change to business as usual that is quick and clearing and are set up to utilize savagery to accomplish their progressive object ives. Moderate: Someone who is commonly happy with business as usual. Conservatives incorporate the two nonconformists who bolster advance and acknowledge change as a methods for improving conditions for people and society, and traditionalists who oppose change accepting that customs, benefit and lawfulness are basic to keeping up an edified society. Reactionary: A fanatic of the political right. Reactionaries dismiss hang and favor an arrival to conventional qualities, foundations and the genuine or envisioned wonders of the past. Ideological Belief and the Political Spectrum: In the twentieth Century, radical Communists accepted a global laborers upheaval would bring about aggregate proprietorship and a ridiculous society. Moderate communists looked for fairness through majority rule implies. Nonconformists scanned for more extensive individual rights in an equitable society. Traditionalists guarded benefit and independence. Extremists were reactionaries who contradicted correspondence, advanced consistency and bolstered an arrival to national magnificence and domain. Socialism verbalism Conservatism Fascism Note: On the range, change moves to one side; thusly, after some time, values that once appeared to be increasingly radical step by step become acknowledged and in the end may speak to the norm. Nonconformists in the 1 ninth century upheld constrained government, singular rights however not all inclusive testimonial (it was acknowledged that specific gatherings, ladies for instance, ought not reserve the option to cast a ballot). Unexpectedly, in contemporary society, it is conservatism that contends for constrained government and radicalism that accepts government has a significant task to carry out in making a progressively libertarian culture. Conservatism, as usual, means to safeguard business as usual and its inborn customs and benefits. A range speaking to the degree of Government Control Political and monetary frameworks can likewise be arranged by how much control the administration has over its residents. The outrageous right and left of the range favor absolute government control to accomplish their targets. Communists accept that legislature has a critical job in controlling imperative businesses and offices. Nonconformists accept government has a job in molding a superior society. Traditionalists accept the job Of government ought to be constrained. Rebels are so skeptical of the intensity of government that they trust it ought to be abrogated. These perspectives can be spoken to in various manners: Anarchism No Government (Anarchy) Limited Government (Democracy) Total Government (Dictatorship) Government Control Freedom _ Liberalism Individual TOTALITARIANISM MODERATES ANARCHISM Totalitarianism: An authoritarian state is managed by a solitary head and gathering. The official has absolute power over all elements of the state and residents are relied upon to give their full devotion to their legislature. Such a state could be Communist or Fascist (additionally named dictator, absolutist, despotic, actuarial, one-party state). Conservatives: Moderates offset singular opportunity with the benefit of all. Moderate states advance pluralism which perceives the normal privileges of a differing populace to effectively take an interest in the overseeing of the nation. The intensity of the administration is constrained by the constitution and rule of law. A division of forces guarantees that no part of government can use phenomenal force without the assent of the represented. Turmoil: Anarchists accept that all administration authority is self-serving, conceivably degenerate and treacherous, and that people ought to be ere from outside offices. Seen from every other situation on the range, insurgency is dismissed as a framework that would bring about political agitation (disorder); in any case, this mirrors the point of view of the individuals who bolster government an a foundation. Investigating THE POLITICAL SPECTRUM The Spectrum as a Grid The trouble of setting complex convictions on a left-right range prompted the us of a matrix framework. Along these lines, a belief system that esteemed monetary opportunity however affable limitation could be separated from one that lectured both financial and political opportunity. Monetary Freedom Political Freedom Fascists dismiss political opportunities in an express that commends initiative and national destinations. They ensure private possession however control monetary dynamic. Socialists dismiss political and monetary opportunities so as to make another socialist state. Hypothetically government control closes when an uncouth society is accomplished. Libertarians dismiss government interruption in the lives of residents. Libertarians accept people ought to be allowed to do anything they need, insofar as they don't encroach upon the privileges of others. They dismiss aggregate qualities and are dubious of government interruption in their lives. Communists utilize the law based forces of government to accomplish libertarian targets. The accompanying case of a two-pivot framework demonstrates that it is feasible for an individual to be one of four blends of Liberal/Conservative. For example, somebody could be a monetary traditionalist On financial issues (I. E. Has faith in free markets, restricted government, low expenses) and a social liberal on issues, for example, minority rights. Ranges are helpful in that they give a visual methods for differentiating convictions on a continuum but since they rearrange data they have constrained use in pinpointing complex political and monetary thoughts. Movement 2: Consider the accompanying regarding what you have quite recently found out about The political Spectrum. You may likewise consider online sources, for example, http://www. Policewomans. Organization http://www. Learnable. Ca/content/espies/record. HTML http://en. Wisped. Organization/wick/political_spectrum 1 . Quickly recognize the
Friday, August 21, 2020
Developing Accounting Issues - Research Paper Example These issues should be in accordance with the FASB Accounting Standards Codification. This paper tries to the feature the job of EITF and its relationship with pioneering elements in the US. Question #1 The EITF was intended to advertise the execution direction of sound bookkeeping standards inside the structure of the Accounting Standards Codification (ASC). This was intended to decrease assorted variety on a convenient premise, and to limit the requirement for the FASB to invest energy and invest time in tending to limit usage, and application (Wahlen, Jones, and Pagach, 2012). The EITF was intended to make more space for the FASB to assign on different issues while the EITF managed reliable rising issues that can be dissected inside the GAAP. A typical relationship that exists between the FASB and EITF separated from the way that EITF was framed from the proposals of the FASB is the EIFT individuals. Individuals from this organization are drawn from a cross segment of the FASB wor k power in its different voting public. These faculty incorporate preparers, reviewers and fiscal summary clients. The EITF is intended to go about as a taskforce that comprises people with the capacity to recognize developing issues before they show themselves as boundless dissimilar practices that become dug in. This is to guarantee that bookkeeping standards and practices that don't serve the eventual benefits of the general population are not left unregulated. This gives the EITF command to found administrative measures and conventions that guarantee a specific business substance sticks to standard practice. The obligations of the EITF are couple with those of the FASB; as in activities that can't be practiced by EITF are taken up by the FASB. EITFÃ¢â¬â¢s viability in discovering goals is pegged on its capacity to recognize developing bookkeeping and money related issues in an opportune way all together influence its administrative job skillfully (Bragg, 2012). The agencyÃ¢â¬ â¢s goals definition is established on the standards of consultative discourse with the partners and pertinent experts in the fields of money related bookkeeping. To this end, EITF holds open gatherings routinely to think on new issues and get contribution from proposition and proposals it should make. As characterized by its structure, the EIFT best practices, proposition and suggestions are seen as the best to serve the open great. Constitution of bookkeepers from huge bookkeeping firms implies that all the present patterns by and by are insightful with EITFÃ¢â¬â¢s obligations and capacities. EITF accomplishes compelling goals of rising issues by explicitly creating answers and answers for each developing issue. This is on the grounds that accomplished perception has prompted the end that the advancement of an incorporating medicinal technique doesn't ensure in general viability. Best practice and goals of developing bookkeeping issues independently has been refered to as the m ost ideal way EITF adequacy and proficiency. Question #2 The EITF issue No. 13-C is worried about the introduction of unrecognized tax reduction when a net working shortfall convey forward or charge credit convey forward exists (Hyman, 2010). During the introduction of an announcement of money related position, disclosure of unrecognized tax reductions on personal assessment isn't expressly required. There exist differing rehearses with regards to the disclosure
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
The End of Savannah State University Essay Topics Application essays about challenges reveal how you respond to difficulty to folks who are quite interested in how you'll handle the subsequent four years all on your own. Debating is a helpful practice for all people as a result of the experience and skills it provides you. Stephen connects his previous experience to his present-day maturity through self-knowledge. Admission is granted for a certain semester and is validated by registration for this semester. Applicants have to be admitted to the Graduate School before they are entitled to register. Students know the way to be creative. They lead busy lives and often forget about an upcoming deadline. The next graphic shows the way the cost of getting a degree at Georgia State University compares to other similar excellent colleges nationwide. FCS schools play with no more than 63 scholarships. Whenever you have the last score that you're contented with, after that you can send only that score to all of your schools. Individual schools sometimes need supplemental essays. Students don't need to write about a big turning point in their essay, Soule states. Possessing a very clear and structured plan is the foundation for any fantastic bit of writing, and a college essay is not any different. The scientific use of words and phrases related medicine is named Medical Terminology. Quite simply, all the tasks and college essays you're requested to complete should be OK, well-structured, cited correctly and submitted in time. Fortunately, colleges will think something similar about you in case you choose to incorporate your love of literature in your essay. Continue reading for more tips on the best way to compose a fantastic college essay, even when you don't feel you've got anything interesting to write about. When you're writing a college admission essay, you should finish the just one paper. Writing the college application essay is a challenging gig. Successful essay and productive topic for college essay is typically a specific one. Since you may see, there's a multitude of different argumentative paper titles you may utilize. When you get your completed essay, be sure to tell all your friends what a terrific service it is and what's the perfect place to obtain cheap essays. Although it is obvious for a narrative essay, it might be unclear why one ought to offer enough details for a persuasive or maybe a process essay, alongside with the rest of the types. Choosing our service, you are going to understand that studying can be simple if you gain from the help of competent experts. Because it is simpler to kick around the exact same ideas over and over again. The topics can fluctuate, but they all are directed at supplying the information about a student's potential. The scholarship covers the price of tuition and offers a stipend for books for as many as 120 credit hours. Savannah State University Essay Topics and Savannah State University Essay Topics - The Perfect Combination Writing by hand is a little bit of romantic, but in the event you really need to get into college, you've got to be fully equipped' with the best technologies. The essay is easily among the most troublesome portions of the college application approach. Your essay is the opportunity to invigorate your application. College application essays are often the most difficult portion of the application procedure. The absolute most important quick thing you can do to help your essay is to be sure there aren't any typos or grammatical errors. Think carefully and you'll find what you have to have in your past. You might decide to write about something unexpected and the way you pursue your interest. Suddenly, you're in an entirely new situation, and will need to do something, but you need zero idea what. The Birth of Savannah State University Essay Topics Women in HBCU presidencies have not obtained the exact same chance to acquire it wrong and to learn to receive it right. Colleges are not searching for perfe ct folks. Not each time you prepare for debate you'll have to be serious. Consider your feelings about the scenario, how it affected you and what you learned from the experience instead of just simply recalling the circumstance or the individual you lost. Needless to say, you might select any topic, nobody could ever know that you're describing experience that you never actually had, but don't forget that it is always simpler to tell the truth than to invent lies. The moment itself isn't important. The Principles of Savannah State University Essay Topics That You Will be Able to Benefit From Starting Immediately Somehow, it's even more difficult to decide on an essay topic, since you have to abide by reflective or narrative style, and you've got zero decision. Essay topics for college needs to be paid a specific attention to. Deciding on an appropriate essay topic is extremely important. Choosing topics for argumentative essays is critical for your general success. Topics like death and divorce are cautionary as they can be exceedingly challenging to write about. Different types of couples' relationship also alter the expression of self in authentic method.
Friday, May 15, 2020
A Peak from a Perspective A deep breath. WeÃ¢â¬â¢re waging a war. It seems that in any kind of business, there is somewhat of a battle to be fought, whether with the company itself or with other organizations vis-Ã -vis the company. As to how to skate through the rocky atmosphere with a graceful land from a triple hoop axel jump is discussed in the book, Sun Tzu: Art of War and Management although in a different view. Through its different principles in war, each concept is translated as to how it can be used in the business showground. The principles begin from making a decision whether waging a war is practical or not. In business perspective, this translates to the idea whether entering into a business would be rational. The viability ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦They realized that not only fertilizer was needed but also chemicals such as pesticides and insecticides to irrigate the farmland. They capitalized on the opportunity that the market is not yet fully saturated or occupied. This follows th e concept of appraising the terrain, whether it is open or constricted. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t have much concern regarding their competitors because as long as they have cheaper sources of their products, they have an advantage over their rivals. But unlike Hi-Fern Marketing which doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have enemies in the battlefield of business, the fierce competition of Alto Broadcasting System-Chronicles Broadcasting Network (ABS-CBN) and Gozon Marketing Association (GMA) is one of the popular rivalries present in the country. Each networkÃ¢â¬â¢s objective is high ratings which translate into a heftier slice of the multi-billion peso advertising pie. For quite a while, ABS-CBN had a commanding lead over GMA. The latter was content to be a strong number two. Ironically, GMA was the number one station during the martial law era in the 70s under the stewardship of current ABS-CBN chief operating officer Freddie Garcia. When the Lopezes got back ABS-CBN after the Edsa Revolt in 1986, the late Geny Lopez was able to convince Garcia to return to his mother station. This exemplifies the concept of headhunting under the various principles advocated by Sun Tzu. It was Garcia who liftedShow MoreRelatedStudying Management Unit : Formativ e Assignment1631 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages 2ND NOVEMBER 2015 Candidate number: 23639 Tutor: Peter Nicholls STUDYING MANAGEMENT UNIT Ã¢â¬â FORMATIVE ASSIGNMENT Discuss whether knowing the history of management is useful for studying management today THE VALUE OF HISTORY OF MANAGEMENT 1. INTRODUCTION A deep knowledge of the history of management, together with a reasonable amount of critical thinking, is perceived as a driver that enables prospective students and managers in enhancing their inventive aptitude and creative capabilities (BridgmanRead MoreSun Tzu Art of War for Maxis2378 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesAppendix I UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN FACULTY OF BUSINESS AND FINANCE ACADEMIC YEAR: 2009/2010 JAN 2010 TRIMESTER UBMM1011 SUN ZIÃ¢â¬â¢S ART OF WAR BUSINESS STRATEGIES Assignment cover Sheet Course details Course : ______________________________________ Year and Semester of study : _______________________________________ LecturerÃ¢â¬â¢s Name : __DR. WONG KEE LUEN_____________________ Assignment Details Topic : _____________________________________ Due Date : Week 7, 5 March 2010Read MoreSunzi Assignment- Ibm4648 Words Ã |Ã 19 PagesDiscovering Opportunities Discovering opportunities is one of the philosophies that used by IBM Company. It is under Sun ZiÃ¢â¬â¢s Art of War Chapter 6 Weaknesses and Strength. It involves two concepts, there are strength and weakness that describe the cycle that creates and fills opening naturally. Ã¢â¬Å"Strength does not come from size and money. It comes from adapting to opponentÃ¢â¬â¢s weaknessesÃ¢â¬ said by Sun Zi. Ã¢â¬Å"If competitors focus on price, they sacrifice quality; If they focus on quality, they are vulnerable onRead MoreSunzi Assignment- Ibm4641 Words Ã |Ã 19 PagesDiscovering Opportunities Discovering opportunities is one of the philosophies that used by IBM Company. It is under Sun ZiÃ¢â¬â¢s Art of War Chapter 6 Weaknesses and Strength. It involves two concepts, there are strength and weakness that describe the cycle that creates and fills opening naturally. Ã¢â¬Å"Strength does not come from size and money. It comes from adapting to opponentÃ¢â¬â¢s weaknessesÃ¢â¬ said by Sun Zi. 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I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to apply his advice right away and as my experiences grew I knew I would encounter the quandary of do I share the whole story, a portion, or nothing at all. Years later I would return to his guidance again and again and ask myself, am I sharing too much? Am I not sharing enough? How much should I share about myself with others? There are management and leadershipRead MoreWhy Should Anyone Be Led By You1901 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages At the ripe age of 18, a coworker shared what he expressed was very important advice. He said, Ã¢â¬Å"The more people know about you, the more they will use against you.Ã¢â¬ He said it came from an important book he read while in the military, Ã¢â¬Å"The Art of War,Ã¢â¬ by Sun Tzu. At that time, I took it as good advice to reflect on. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to apply his advice right away but as my experiences grew I knew I would encounter the quandary of do I share the whole story, a portion, or nothing at all. YearsRead MoreThesis - Information Operations in Strategic, Operational, and Tactical Levels of War23393 Words Ã |Ã 94 PagesNAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS INFORMATION OPERATIONS IN STRATEGIC, OPERATIONAL, AND TACTICAL LEVELS OF WAR: A BALANCED SYSTEMATIC APPROACH by Bunyamin Tuner September 2003 Thesis Advisor: Thesis Co-Advisor: Daniel Boger Steve Iatrou Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated toRead MoreStrategic Management Process12814 Words Ã |Ã 52 PagesSTRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESSS Strategic or institutional management is the conduct of drafting, implementing and evaluating cross-functional decisions that will enable an organization to achieve its long-term objectives. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
In 1968, President Richard Nixon initiated the War on Drugs when American soldiers were coming home from the Vietnam War addicted to heroin. More than a decade later, President Ronald Reagan launches the South Florida Drug Task force, headed by then Vice-President George Bush, in response to the city of MiamiÃ¢â¬â¢s demand for help. In 1981, Miami was the financial and import central for cocaine and marijuana, and the residents were fed up. Thanks to the task force, drug arrests went up by 27%, and drug seizures went up by 50%. With that, the need for prosecutors and judges also rose. Despite these increased arrests and seizures, marijuana and cocaine still poured into south Florida. At this stage, the root of the problem, the ColombianÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The Colombians, who want no Colombians in American Jails, oppose this. The drug dealers both respected and feared extradition, and recognized the threat. When the Colombian Justice Minister openly supported extradition, he was assassinated. Still, the U.S. pressures the extradition issue. In 1985, anti-Government Guerillas, mainly composed of the drug dealers, attack the Colombian Supreme Court. The extradition requests were destroyed, and eleven Supreme Court Justices were killed. In total, over 200 people lost their lives. At this point, the drug lords are using terrorism to force the Colombian government to back off the extradition issue. During the 1980s, it appeared that Central America was awash in drugs, and drug money. The violence continues today, through drug related gang violence, to botched drug raids. Drug dealers often carry weapons, some illegal, to defend themselves and their drugs. The drugs themselves do not cause violence; it is the fact that they are illegal that causes the violence. If two drug dealers have a dispute, they have no legal way for it to be settled. The only option for them is violence. At this time, the ParentÃ¢â¬â¢s Movement is focusing its attentions on marijuana and children. Nancy Reagan makes her famous Ã¢â¬Å"Just say No!Ã¢â¬ speech and President Reagan makes marijuana a top priority. Upon examining the relationship between marijuana use andShow MoreRelatedAmericas War On Drugs1528 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s war on drugs has failed. After millions of dollars and untold man hours spent enforcing the prohibition of illegal drugs, there is little, if any, success to show for it. Illicit drugs are still available on most American street corners, drug usage rates have not decreased, and the scourge of drug related violence continues to spread like wildfire. Sadly, the war on drugs has also resulted in the incarceration of millions of Americans for petty possession offenses and has created a blackRead More AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Drug War Essay3563 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesThe War on Drugs, like the war on Terrorism, is a war that America may not be able to afford to win. For over forty years the United States has been fighting the War on Drugs and there is no end in sight. It has turned into a war that is about politics and economics rather than about drugs and cri minals. The victims of this war are numerous; but perhaps they are not as numerous as those who benefit from the war itself. History of U.S Drug Policy: While laws prohibiting the use of drugs, in oneRead MoreWar on Drugs: Americas Fight against Drugs1278 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Americas War on Drugs: In the past 40 years, the American government has spent more than $2.5 trillion dollars on the war against drugs. The huge expenditure has been coupled by numerous the ad campaigns, clean-up on smuggling, and increase in illicit drug users and incarceration rates. Actually, the increase in illicit drug users currently stands at 19.9 million in the United States with huge supplies from Mexico. 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A lot of time, effort, and money go into AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s attempt in eliminating trafficking, dealing, and the use of illegal drugs. Many believe that this is a war worth fighting, while others feel that America will never conquer the war on drugs. The latter suggest legalization as an alternativeRead MoreAmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Failing War on Drugs and the Culture of Incarceration2483 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesAmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s failing War on Drugs and the Culture of Incarceration Richard B. Carpenter Adams State College AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s failing War on Drugs and the Culture of Incarceration Richard B. Carpenter Adams State College Abstract For over a century, America has waged a failing war on drugs even as it feeds a cultural apathetic and underground acceptance of drug and alcohol use. The views of the dominate group have placed blame on societyÃ¢â¬â¢s ills on the evilsRead MoreAmericas War on Drugs - The Prison Industrial Complex Essay911 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAfter viewing the documentary: Americas War on Drugs - The Prison Industrial Complex, it is clear that the Criminal Justice System is in desperate need of reconstruction and repair with policies such as the mandatory minimum sentencing act which has proven to be unsuccessful and unjust in its efforts to deter criminals from committing illegal acts as seen with the increase of incarcerations of the American people and the devastating effect it has had on those in prison and the family members ofRead MoreThe Rockefeller Drug Laws: Americas War on Drugs: a War We Are Causing, a War We Can Solve1814 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesthe Rockefeller Drug Laws were passed in 1973 under Governor Nelson Rockefeller, New York State has had the harshest sentencing for low-level, non-violent drug offenders of any other state in the nation. Under these laws, those convicted of drug offenses face the same penalties as those convicted of murder, and harsher penalties that those convicted of rape. (Sullum, 1) Though the laws were first enacted to curb the late-1960s-early-1970s psychedelic drug epidemic, New Yorks drug problem in factRead MoreThe Flawed Drug Policy of America1691 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAmericas Flawed Drug Policy Introduction: As a major policy issue in the United States, the War on Drugs has been one of the most monumental failures on modern record. At a cost of billions of taxpayer dollars, thousands of lives lost and many thousands of others ruined by untreated addiction or incarceration, Americas policy orientation concerning drug laws is due for reconsideration. Indeed, the very philosophical orientation of the War on Drugs and of the current drug policy in the UnitedRead MoreAmerica s War On Drugs1539 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages On June 17th, 1971, President Richard Nixon declared drug abuse to be Ã¢â¬Å"AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Public Enemy #1Ã¢â¬ in a press conference in which he called for an Ã¢â¬Å"all out offensiveÃ¢â¬ against this enemy, an initiative that would later be known as AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s War on Drugs. By giving this speech, thus starting Ã¢â¬Å"The War on Drugs,Ã¢â¬ President Nixon created what would eventually become one of the most catastrophic failures in United States political histo ry. Analysis of the historical events surrounding NixonÃ¢â¬â¢s declaration
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
He attended and received his B. A. from Duke University in 1937 and his Ph. D from Harvard University in 1941. As an American psychologist, he has contributed greatly to cognitive psychology and the cognitive learning theory in educational psychology, as well as to history and the general philosophy of education. He was on the faculty in the Department of Psychology at Harvard University from 1952 Ã¢â¬â 1972. He published his book Ã¢â¬Å"The Process of EducationÃ¢â¬ in 1960. This book influenced many young researchers and led to a great deal of experimentation and a wide range of educational programs. In the early 70Ã¢â¬â¢s, he left Harvard University to become a tutor at the University of Oxford up until 1979, after which he returned to Harvard University. Later he joined the New York University of Law, where he became a Senior Researcher (at the age of 93). THEORY Jerome Bruner is one of the founding fathers of Constructivist Theory. Constructivism is an extensive theoretical framework with several perspectives, and Bruners is only one. Bruners hypothetical framework is based on the theme that learners create new ideas or concepts based upon existing knowledge. Learning is an active process. Aspects of the process include selection and transformation of information, decision making, generating hypotheses, and making meaning from information and experiences. Jerome Bruner believes that teachers need: Ã¢â¬ ¢To understand the relationship between motivation and learning; Ã¢â¬ ¢To understand how structure relates to the whole; To learn to form Ã¢â¬Å"global conceptsÃ¢â¬ ; Ã¢â¬ ¢ To learn how to build Ã¢â¬Å"coherent patternsÃ¢â¬ of learning; Ã¢â¬ ¢To understand that facts without meaning are not learned; and Ã¢â¬ ¢To believe that any subject can be taught to any child. (Ã¢â¬Å"Any subject can be taught effectively in some intellectually honest form to any child at any stage of developmentÃ¢â¬ (Bruner, 1960, p. 33). Four Key themes emerged in Bruners early work. These were: a)the Structure which refers to relationships among factual elements and techniques. )the Spiral Curriculum which refers to the idea of reiterating basic ideas over and over, building upon them and elaborating on the concepts to the level of full understanding and mastery. Bruner believed that any subject could be taught at any stage of development in a way that fit the childs cognitive abilities. c)intuitive and analytical thinking which Bruner considered should both be rewarded and encouraged. d)motivation for learning which he felt that interest in the subject matter was the best stimulus for learning. Ideally, Jerome Bruner writes, interest in the material to be learned is the best stimulus to learning, rather than such external goals as grades or later competitive advantage (ibid. : 14). The following are the four features of BrunerÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory of Instruction. a)Predisposition to learn: This aspect in particular states the experiences which move the learner toward a love of learning in general, or of learning something specifically. Motivational, cultural, and personal factors contribute to this. Bruner accentuated social factors and early teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ and parents influence on this. He believed learning and problem solving emerged out of exploration. Part of the task of a teacher is to preserve and guide a childs natural explorations. b)The Structure of Knowledge: In this feature, he believes that it is possible to structure knowledge in such a way that enables the learner to more readily grasp the information. c)Modes of Representation: He believes that children go through three stages of intellectual development or main changes before reaching maturity. These are: the enactive stage; the iconic stage; and the symbolic stage. i)The enactive stage: Ã¢â¬Å"knowledge is stored primarily in the form of motor responses. Ã¢â¬ (Alexander 2002). In this stage, children learn through the form of motor skills and experimentation by the manipulation of objects in their environment. e. g. a child may see a colourful toy and become fascinated by it, but the said toy only becomes real to the child if the child can see, touch or manipulate it. This stage spans from birth t o eighteen months of age. (ii)The iconic stage: Ã¢â¬Å"knowledge is stored primarily in the form of visual imagesÃ¢â¬ (Alexander 2002. In this stage, a child learns through viewing of objects. The individual is able to develop mental images of events. e. g. (iii)The symbolic stage: Ã¢â¬Å"knowledge is stored primarily as words, mathematical symbols, or in other symbol systemsÃ¢â¬ (Alexander 2002). In this stage, the learner develops the capacity to think in abstract terms and uses language or other symbols to represent information. e. g. knowing that x + 2 = 6, therefore the value of x must be 4. Based on this three-stage notion, Bruner recommended that using a combination of concrete, pictorial and then symbolic activities will lead to more effective learning. However, unlike Jean PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, Bruner does not restrict these developmental stages to any specific age group but believes that these can be applied all through life. This example is taken from Bruner (1973): The concept of prime numbers appears to be more readily grasped when the child, through construction, discovers that certain handfuls of beans cannot be laid out in completed rows and columns. Such quantities have either to be laid out in a single file or in an incomplete row-column design in which there is always one extra or one too few to fill the pattern. These patterns, the child learns, happen to be called prime. It is easy for the child to go from this step to the recognition that a multiple table, so called, is a record sheet of quantities in completed multiple rows and columns. Here is factoring, multiplication and primes in a construction that can be visualized. Figure 1 A child would begin at the bottom of the pyramid and eventually escalate to the peak. d)Effective sequencing which suggests that learning takes place in the order of the aforementioned modes of representation. Bruners theories emphasize the significance of categorization in learning. To perceive is to categorize, to conceptualize is to categorize, to learn is to form categories, to make decisions is to categorize. Interpreting information and experiences by similarities and differences is a key concept. (Jerome Bruner) SECTION B Scaffolding can be very useful in the learning process. This is a key derived from VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s notion of social learning (Wood, Bruner, Ross, 1976). This is basically the assistance provided by adults or more competent peers in the process of learning. This provides the child with a great deal of support in the earlier stages of learning, and then lessens that support or help when the child becomes more confident and is able to carry out given tasks on its own. Some types of scaffolding are: i) Reciprocal Scaffolding Ã¢â¬â A teacher in the classroom may use reciprocal scaffolding as a means to help pupils further understand a concept that is taught. This can come in the form of grouping students together (this can be a small group of about three or four pupils). These pupils should also have a diversity of levels whereas they would be able to learn from each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge and experience. Assign a task to these pupils and allow them to come up with their own solution to the problem. According to the theory, this method gives the weaker child the opportunity to develop higher-level thinking skills. ii) Contingent Scaffolding Ã¢â¬â With this type of scaffolding, a teacher may circulate around the classroom giving each pupil the opportunity to converse with him/ her on a one-on-one basis. The teacher would be able to view and question each childÃ¢â¬â¢s methods individually and be able to provide constructive feedback. According to the encyclopedia of primary education, (Hayes, 2010) Discovery Learning is an open ended form of problem solving in which the teacher provides an introductory activity or stimulus on a relevant theme or topic to gain the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s interest, stir their natural curiosity and raise the level of enthusiasm and motivation. One type of discovery learning is: i)Guided Discovery Ã¢â¬â this is a reflective teaching technique. With guided discovery, a teacher may provide pupils with adequate background information on a specific topic. The pupils are then given the opportunity and much of the responsibility for finding relationships and organizing knowledge. The teacher may ask pupils to discuss familiar topics. The teacher is careful to provide the necessary guidance to ensure that discovery and learning occur. Guided discovery is generally more effective than open discovery learning (Mayer, 2002).