Tuesday, May 26, 2020
The End of Savannah State University Essay Topics Application essays about challenges reveal how you respond to difficulty to folks who are quite interested in how you'll handle the subsequent four years all on your own. Debating is a helpful practice for all people as a result of the experience and skills it provides you. Stephen connects his previous experience to his present-day maturity through self-knowledge. Admission is granted for a certain semester and is validated by registration for this semester. Applicants have to be admitted to the Graduate School before they are entitled to register. Students know the way to be creative. They lead busy lives and often forget about an upcoming deadline. The next graphic shows the way the cost of getting a degree at Georgia State University compares to other similar excellent colleges nationwide. FCS schools play with no more than 63 scholarships. 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Friday, May 15, 2020
A Peak from a Perspective A deep breath. WeÃ¢â¬â¢re waging a war. It seems that in any kind of business, there is somewhat of a battle to be fought, whether with the company itself or with other organizations vis-Ã -vis the company. As to how to skate through the rocky atmosphere with a graceful land from a triple hoop axel jump is discussed in the book, Sun Tzu: Art of War and Management although in a different view. Through its different principles in war, each concept is translated as to how it can be used in the business showground. The principles begin from making a decision whether waging a war is practical or not. In business perspective, this translates to the idea whether entering into a business would be rational. The viability ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦They realized that not only fertilizer was needed but also chemicals such as pesticides and insecticides to irrigate the farmland. They capitalized on the opportunity that the market is not yet fully saturated or occupied. This follows th e concept of appraising the terrain, whether it is open or constricted. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t have much concern regarding their competitors because as long as they have cheaper sources of their products, they have an advantage over their rivals. But unlike Hi-Fern Marketing which doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t have enemies in the battlefield of business, the fierce competition of Alto Broadcasting System-Chronicles Broadcasting Network (ABS-CBN) and Gozon Marketing Association (GMA) is one of the popular rivalries present in the country. Each networkÃ¢â¬â¢s objective is high ratings which translate into a heftier slice of the multi-billion peso advertising pie. For quite a while, ABS-CBN had a commanding lead over GMA. The latter was content to be a strong number two. Ironically, GMA was the number one station during the martial law era in the 70s under the stewardship of current ABS-CBN chief operating officer Freddie Garcia. When the Lopezes got back ABS-CBN after the Edsa Revolt in 1986, the late Geny Lopez was able to convince Garcia to return to his mother station. This exemplifies the concept of headhunting under the various principles advocated by Sun Tzu. It was Garcia who liftedShow MoreRelatedStudying Management Unit : Formativ e Assignment1631 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages 2ND NOVEMBER 2015 Candidate number: 23639 Tutor: Peter Nicholls STUDYING MANAGEMENT UNIT Ã¢â¬â FORMATIVE ASSIGNMENT Discuss whether knowing the history of management is useful for studying management today THE VALUE OF HISTORY OF MANAGEMENT 1. INTRODUCTION A deep knowledge of the history of management, together with a reasonable amount of critical thinking, is perceived as a driver that enables prospective students and managers in enhancing their inventive aptitude and creative capabilities (BridgmanRead MoreSun Tzu Art of War for Maxis2378 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesAppendix I UNIVERSITI TUNKU ABDUL RAHMAN FACULTY OF BUSINESS AND FINANCE ACADEMIC YEAR: 2009/2010 JAN 2010 TRIMESTER UBMM1011 SUN ZIÃ¢â¬â¢S ART OF WAR BUSINESS STRATEGIES Assignment cover Sheet Course details Course : ______________________________________ Year and Semester of study : _______________________________________ LecturerÃ¢â¬â¢s Name : __DR. WONG KEE LUEN_____________________ Assignment Details Topic : _____________________________________ Due Date : Week 7, 5 March 2010Read MoreSunzi Assignment- Ibm4648 Words Ã |Ã 19 PagesDiscovering Opportunities Discovering opportunities is one of the philosophies that used by IBM Company. It is under Sun ZiÃ¢â¬â¢s Art of War Chapter 6 Weaknesses and Strength. It involves two concepts, there are strength and weakness that describe the cycle that creates and fills opening naturally. Ã¢â¬Å"Strength does not come from size and money. It comes from adapting to opponentÃ¢â¬â¢s weaknessesÃ¢â¬ said by Sun Zi. Ã¢â¬Å"If competitors focus on price, they sacrifice quality; If they focus on quality, they are vulnerable onRead MoreSunzi Assignment- Ibm4641 Words Ã |Ã 19 PagesDiscovering Opportunities Discovering opportunities is one of the philosophies that used by IBM Company. It is under Sun ZiÃ¢â¬â¢s Art of War Chapter 6 Weaknesses and Strength. It involves two concepts, there are strength and weakness that describe the cycle that creates and fills opening naturally. Ã¢â¬Å"Strength does not come from size and money. It comes from adapting to opponentÃ¢â¬â¢s weaknessesÃ¢â¬ said by Sun Zi. Ã¢â¬Å"If competitors focus on price, they sacrifice quality; If they focus on quality, they are vulnerable onRead MoreThe Role Of Human Resources Department At The Management Training Process1556 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn order to understand the role of the Human Resources department in the management training process, there must first be an understanding of the origin and true intention of the implementation of such department. Many business professionals may be under the impression that Human Resources is a modern institution created around the industrial era made famous by the teach ing and research of Dave Ulrich. To a certain extent this would be a correct assumption. There are multiple perceptions of the modernRead MoreLeadership And Leadership Implications For Swinging The Pendulum Too Far1925 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesimportant book he read while in the military, Ã¢â¬Å"The Art of War,Ã¢â¬ by Sun Tzu. At that time, I took it as good advice to reflect on. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to apply his advice right away and as my experiences grew I knew I would encounter the quandary of do I share the whole story, a portion, or nothing at all. Years later I would return to his guidance again and again and ask myself, am I sharing too much? Am I not sharing enough? How much should I share about myself with others? There are management and leadershipRead MoreWhy Should Anyone Be Led By You1901 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages At the ripe age of 18, a coworker shared what he expressed was very important advice. He said, Ã¢â¬Å"The more people know about you, the more they will use against you.Ã¢â¬ He said it came from an important book he read while in the military, Ã¢â¬Å"The Art of War,Ã¢â¬ by Sun Tzu. At that time, I took it as good advice to reflect on. I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to apply his advice right away but as my experiences grew I knew I would encounter the quandary of do I share the whole story, a portion, or nothing at all. YearsRead MoreThesis - Information Operations in Strategic, Operational, and Tactical Levels of War23393 Words Ã |Ã 94 PagesNAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS INFORMATION OPERATIONS IN STRATEGIC, OPERATIONAL, AND TACTICAL LEVELS OF WAR: A BALANCED SYSTEMATIC APPROACH by Bunyamin Tuner September 2003 Thesis Advisor: Thesis Co-Advisor: Daniel Boger Steve Iatrou Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated toRead MoreStrategic Management Process12814 Words Ã |Ã 52 PagesSTRATEGIC MANAGEMENT PROCESSS Strategic or institutional management is the conduct of drafting, implementing and evaluating cross-functional decisions that will enable an organization to achieve its long-term objectives. It is the process of specifying the organization s mission, vision and objectives, developing policies and plans, often in terms of projects and programs, which are designed to achieve these objectives, and then allocating resources to implement the policies and plans, projectsRead MoreOrganizational Behaviour Analysis28615 Words Ã |Ã 115 PagesMaking Sense of Organisations: Metaphorical knowledge. Traditional Management: Mechanism, Rationality and Bureaucracy. Modified Bureaucracy: The Human Relations Movement and Job Design. Organisational Culture: Real and imagined. Why Work?: The motivation to get out of bed in the morning. The Politics of Organising: Goals? Whose Goals? Power and Conflict in Organisations: Pathology or Normality? Leadership and Management: The gentle art of being in ch arge? Negotiation and Influence: What does it take
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
In 1968, President Richard Nixon initiated the War on Drugs when American soldiers were coming home from the Vietnam War addicted to heroin. More than a decade later, President Ronald Reagan launches the South Florida Drug Task force, headed by then Vice-President George Bush, in response to the city of MiamiÃ¢â¬â¢s demand for help. In 1981, Miami was the financial and import central for cocaine and marijuana, and the residents were fed up. Thanks to the task force, drug arrests went up by 27%, and drug seizures went up by 50%. With that, the need for prosecutors and judges also rose. Despite these increased arrests and seizures, marijuana and cocaine still poured into south Florida. At this stage, the root of the problem, the ColombianÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The Colombians, who want no Colombians in American Jails, oppose this. The drug dealers both respected and feared extradition, and recognized the threat. When the Colombian Justice Minister openly supported extradition, he was assassinated. Still, the U.S. pressures the extradition issue. In 1985, anti-Government Guerillas, mainly composed of the drug dealers, attack the Colombian Supreme Court. The extradition requests were destroyed, and eleven Supreme Court Justices were killed. In total, over 200 people lost their lives. At this point, the drug lords are using terrorism to force the Colombian government to back off the extradition issue. During the 1980s, it appeared that Central America was awash in drugs, and drug money. The violence continues today, through drug related gang violence, to botched drug raids. Drug dealers often carry weapons, some illegal, to defend themselves and their drugs. The drugs themselves do not cause violence; it is the fact that they are illegal that causes the violence. If two drug dealers have a dispute, they have no legal way for it to be settled. The only option for them is violence. At this time, the ParentÃ¢â¬â¢s Movement is focusing its attentions on marijuana and children. Nancy Reagan makes her famous Ã¢â¬Å"Just say No!Ã¢â¬ speech and President Reagan makes marijuana a top priority. Upon examining the relationship between marijuana use andShow MoreRelatedAmericas War On Drugs1528 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s war on drugs has failed. After millions of dollars and untold man hours spent enforcing the prohibition of illegal drugs, there is little, if any, success to show for it. Illicit drugs are still available on most American street corners, drug usage rates have not decreased, and the scourge of drug related violence continues to spread like wildfire. Sadly, the war on drugs has also resulted in the incarceration of millions of Americans for petty possession offenses and has created a blackRead More AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Drug War Essay3563 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesThe War on Drugs, like the war on Terrorism, is a war that America may not be able to afford to win. For over forty years the United States has been fighting the War on Drugs and there is no end in sight. It has turned into a war that is about politics and economics rather than about drugs and cri minals. The victims of this war are numerous; but perhaps they are not as numerous as those who benefit from the war itself. History of U.S Drug Policy: While laws prohibiting the use of drugs, in oneRead MoreWar on Drugs: Americas Fight against Drugs1278 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Americas War on Drugs: In the past 40 years, the American government has spent more than $2.5 trillion dollars on the war against drugs. The huge expenditure has been coupled by numerous the ad campaigns, clean-up on smuggling, and increase in illicit drug users and incarceration rates. Actually, the increase in illicit drug users currently stands at 19.9 million in the United States with huge supplies from Mexico. With the increase in both the expenditure and number of illegal drug users, thereRead MoreAmericas Unjust Drug War Essay1172 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe argument over drug reform and the current prohibition has been going on for years. It seems to be an argument between a wise parent and a young teenager, but as generations change more and more of the parents seem to switch sides. While prohibitionists say the mainstream drugs like cocaine, heroin, LSD, and marijuana are harmful and immoral, legalizers argue the opposite (Rachels 223). While they are both valid and interesting arguments the drugs named above still remain illegal. Many organizationsRead More AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s War on Drugs vs. Legalization Essay3396 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesAmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s War on Drugs vs. Legalization The United States has spent over 30 years fighting the war on drugs. Americans have paid a heavy price financially. The drug enforcement budget is now $40 billion. A lot of time, effort, and money go into AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s attempt in eliminating trafficking, dealing, and the use of illegal drugs. Many believe that this is a war worth fighting, while others feel that America will never conquer the war on drugs. The latter suggest legalization as an alternativeRead MoreAmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Failing War on Drugs and the Culture of Incarceration2483 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesAmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s failing War on Drugs and the Culture of Incarceration Richard B. Carpenter Adams State College AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s failing War on Drugs and the Culture of Incarceration Richard B. Carpenter Adams State College Abstract For over a century, America has waged a failing war on drugs even as it feeds a cultural apathetic and underground acceptance of drug and alcohol use. The views of the dominate group have placed blame on societyÃ¢â¬â¢s ills on the evilsRead MoreAmericas War on Drugs - The Prison Industrial Complex Essay911 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAfter viewing the documentary: Americas War on Drugs - The Prison Industrial Complex, it is clear that the Criminal Justice System is in desperate need of reconstruction and repair with policies such as the mandatory minimum sentencing act which has proven to be unsuccessful and unjust in its efforts to deter criminals from committing illegal acts as seen with the increase of incarcerations of the American people and the devastating effect it has had on those in prison and the family members ofRead MoreThe Rockefeller Drug Laws: Americas War on Drugs: a War We Are Causing, a War We Can Solve1814 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesthe Rockefeller Drug Laws were passed in 1973 under Governor Nelson Rockefeller, New York State has had the harshest sentencing for low-level, non-violent drug offenders of any other state in the nation. Under these laws, those convicted of drug offenses face the same penalties as those convicted of murder, and harsher penalties that those convicted of rape. (Sullum, 1) Though the laws were first enacted to curb the late-1960s-early-1970s psychedelic drug epidemic, New Yorks drug problem in factRead MoreThe Flawed Drug Policy of America1691 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAmericas Flawed Drug Policy Introduction: As a major policy issue in the United States, the War on Drugs has been one of the most monumental failures on modern record. At a cost of billions of taxpayer dollars, thousands of lives lost and many thousands of others ruined by untreated addiction or incarceration, Americas policy orientation concerning drug laws is due for reconsideration. Indeed, the very philosophical orientation of the War on Drugs and of the current drug policy in the UnitedRead MoreAmerica s War On Drugs1539 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages On June 17th, 1971, President Richard Nixon declared drug abuse to be Ã¢â¬Å"AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Public Enemy #1Ã¢â¬ in a press conference in which he called for an Ã¢â¬Å"all out offensiveÃ¢â¬ against this enemy, an initiative that would later be known as AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s War on Drugs. By giving this speech, thus starting Ã¢â¬Å"The War on Drugs,Ã¢â¬ President Nixon created what would eventually become one of the most catastrophic failures in United States political histo ry. Analysis of the historical events surrounding NixonÃ¢â¬â¢s declaration
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
He attended and received his B. A. from Duke University in 1937 and his Ph. D from Harvard University in 1941. As an American psychologist, he has contributed greatly to cognitive psychology and the cognitive learning theory in educational psychology, as well as to history and the general philosophy of education. He was on the faculty in the Department of Psychology at Harvard University from 1952 Ã¢â¬â 1972. He published his book Ã¢â¬Å"The Process of EducationÃ¢â¬ in 1960. This book influenced many young researchers and led to a great deal of experimentation and a wide range of educational programs. In the early 70Ã¢â¬â¢s, he left Harvard University to become a tutor at the University of Oxford up until 1979, after which he returned to Harvard University. Later he joined the New York University of Law, where he became a Senior Researcher (at the age of 93). THEORY Jerome Bruner is one of the founding fathers of Constructivist Theory. Constructivism is an extensive theoretical framework with several perspectives, and Bruners is only one. Bruners hypothetical framework is based on the theme that learners create new ideas or concepts based upon existing knowledge. Learning is an active process. Aspects of the process include selection and transformation of information, decision making, generating hypotheses, and making meaning from information and experiences. Jerome Bruner believes that teachers need: Ã¢â¬ ¢To understand the relationship between motivation and learning; Ã¢â¬ ¢To understand how structure relates to the whole; To learn to form Ã¢â¬Å"global conceptsÃ¢â¬ ; Ã¢â¬ ¢ To learn how to build Ã¢â¬Å"coherent patternsÃ¢â¬ of learning; Ã¢â¬ ¢To understand that facts without meaning are not learned; and Ã¢â¬ ¢To believe that any subject can be taught to any child. (Ã¢â¬Å"Any subject can be taught effectively in some intellectually honest form to any child at any stage of developmentÃ¢â¬ (Bruner, 1960, p. 33). Four Key themes emerged in Bruners early work. These were: a)the Structure which refers to relationships among factual elements and techniques. )the Spiral Curriculum which refers to the idea of reiterating basic ideas over and over, building upon them and elaborating on the concepts to the level of full understanding and mastery. Bruner believed that any subject could be taught at any stage of development in a way that fit the childs cognitive abilities. c)intuitive and analytical thinking which Bruner considered should both be rewarded and encouraged. d)motivation for learning which he felt that interest in the subject matter was the best stimulus for learning. Ideally, Jerome Bruner writes, interest in the material to be learned is the best stimulus to learning, rather than such external goals as grades or later competitive advantage (ibid. : 14). The following are the four features of BrunerÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory of Instruction. a)Predisposition to learn: This aspect in particular states the experiences which move the learner toward a love of learning in general, or of learning something specifically. Motivational, cultural, and personal factors contribute to this. Bruner accentuated social factors and early teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ and parents influence on this. He believed learning and problem solving emerged out of exploration. Part of the task of a teacher is to preserve and guide a childs natural explorations. b)The Structure of Knowledge: In this feature, he believes that it is possible to structure knowledge in such a way that enables the learner to more readily grasp the information. c)Modes of Representation: He believes that children go through three stages of intellectual development or main changes before reaching maturity. These are: the enactive stage; the iconic stage; and the symbolic stage. i)The enactive stage: Ã¢â¬Å"knowledge is stored primarily in the form of motor responses. Ã¢â¬ (Alexander 2002). In this stage, children learn through the form of motor skills and experimentation by the manipulation of objects in their environment. e. g. a child may see a colourful toy and become fascinated by it, but the said toy only becomes real to the child if the child can see, touch or manipulate it. This stage spans from birth t o eighteen months of age. (ii)The iconic stage: Ã¢â¬Å"knowledge is stored primarily in the form of visual imagesÃ¢â¬ (Alexander 2002. In this stage, a child learns through viewing of objects. The individual is able to develop mental images of events. e. g. (iii)The symbolic stage: Ã¢â¬Å"knowledge is stored primarily as words, mathematical symbols, or in other symbol systemsÃ¢â¬ (Alexander 2002). In this stage, the learner develops the capacity to think in abstract terms and uses language or other symbols to represent information. e. g. knowing that x + 2 = 6, therefore the value of x must be 4. Based on this three-stage notion, Bruner recommended that using a combination of concrete, pictorial and then symbolic activities will lead to more effective learning. However, unlike Jean PiagetÃ¢â¬â¢s theory, Bruner does not restrict these developmental stages to any specific age group but believes that these can be applied all through life. This example is taken from Bruner (1973): The concept of prime numbers appears to be more readily grasped when the child, through construction, discovers that certain handfuls of beans cannot be laid out in completed rows and columns. Such quantities have either to be laid out in a single file or in an incomplete row-column design in which there is always one extra or one too few to fill the pattern. These patterns, the child learns, happen to be called prime. It is easy for the child to go from this step to the recognition that a multiple table, so called, is a record sheet of quantities in completed multiple rows and columns. Here is factoring, multiplication and primes in a construction that can be visualized. Figure 1 A child would begin at the bottom of the pyramid and eventually escalate to the peak. d)Effective sequencing which suggests that learning takes place in the order of the aforementioned modes of representation. Bruners theories emphasize the significance of categorization in learning. To perceive is to categorize, to conceptualize is to categorize, to learn is to form categories, to make decisions is to categorize. Interpreting information and experiences by similarities and differences is a key concept. (Jerome Bruner) SECTION B Scaffolding can be very useful in the learning process. This is a key derived from VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s notion of social learning (Wood, Bruner, Ross, 1976). This is basically the assistance provided by adults or more competent peers in the process of learning. This provides the child with a great deal of support in the earlier stages of learning, and then lessens that support or help when the child becomes more confident and is able to carry out given tasks on its own. Some types of scaffolding are: i) Reciprocal Scaffolding Ã¢â¬â A teacher in the classroom may use reciprocal scaffolding as a means to help pupils further understand a concept that is taught. This can come in the form of grouping students together (this can be a small group of about three or four pupils). These pupils should also have a diversity of levels whereas they would be able to learn from each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge and experience. Assign a task to these pupils and allow them to come up with their own solution to the problem. According to the theory, this method gives the weaker child the opportunity to develop higher-level thinking skills. ii) Contingent Scaffolding Ã¢â¬â With this type of scaffolding, a teacher may circulate around the classroom giving each pupil the opportunity to converse with him/ her on a one-on-one basis. The teacher would be able to view and question each childÃ¢â¬â¢s methods individually and be able to provide constructive feedback. According to the encyclopedia of primary education, (Hayes, 2010) Discovery Learning is an open ended form of problem solving in which the teacher provides an introductory activity or stimulus on a relevant theme or topic to gain the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s interest, stir their natural curiosity and raise the level of enthusiasm and motivation. One type of discovery learning is: i)Guided Discovery Ã¢â¬â this is a reflective teaching technique. With guided discovery, a teacher may provide pupils with adequate background information on a specific topic. The pupils are then given the opportunity and much of the responsibility for finding relationships and organizing knowledge. The teacher may ask pupils to discuss familiar topics. The teacher is careful to provide the necessary guidance to ensure that discovery and learning occur. Guided discovery is generally more effective than open discovery learning (Mayer, 2002).
Wednesday, April 15, 2020
Social world Paper The conformity studies show group influence by peers, but Milgram (1974, cited by Brown 1996) distinguished this situation from the influence of persons of authority in hierarchical situations. Milgram investigated the strength of pressure to obey with a now-famous methodology. Milgrams subjects were led to believe that they were giving electric shocks to learners (actor confederates), and they were prompted to do so a clearly marked dangerous levels despite the pre-recorded cries of the learners. The subjects exhibited signs of nervous tension, but in the situation where they were alone twenty-six of forty subjects administered the highest shock level. In a variation of this Milgram demonstrated the positive influence of peer pressure in a group situation. The subject was joined by two confederates who were instructed to resist the experimenters authority. In this case the subject joined the peer rebellion and defied the experimenter in thirty-six out of forty trials.Ã This can be interpreted in different ways. If the subject is seen as a pliant stooge, then this is a demonstration of group influences in a more complex, real way. There are competing influences in most situations which must be incorporated by the individual. It could be that in group situations the individual is affected to a greater extent by a peer than somebody in authority. Equally, it could be a simple aggregated effect with two confederates outnumbering the single experimenter. More positively, if we assume that the subject really does not want to shock the learner, then it may show the enabling effect of the support of others. We will write a custom essay sample on Social world specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Social world specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Social world specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Taken together these experiments begin to suggest that the process of influence in groups is not clear-cut or homogenous. As Brown (1996, p19) puts it [T]here is no universal way in which individuals respond to group pressureparticipants will be affected by the meaning a situation has for them which itself may be influenced by cultural variables. This is a theme that was taken up in experiments into minority influence. Mucovici et al. (1969, cited in Brown 1996) showed the effects of different kinds of peer behaviour on the strength of influence. Groups of six including two confederates were required to name the colour of a slide. The confederates called blue slides as green either consistently or consistently. Results showed that the minority influence was only significant where a consistent behavioural style was evident.Ã Mugny (1975, cited in Brown 1996) held group discussions on topics of contemporary concern and found that the influence of a minority required that an appropriate argument style be employed. Where differences in opinion were large a flexible negotiation style was more effective, but with smaller differences a more rigid style was more influential. Such experiments show a tendency towards reductionism, groups are reduced to peers, authorities, majorities and minorities. Group pressures become types of influence and influence becomes behavioural style. The more specific that group experiments become the less that they seem to be talking about groups and the more they refer to individuals and circumstances. However, some experiments may have more universal implications. Wetherell (1996, p203) refers to two series of experiments that may indicate that [G]roup membership in itself has profound effects upon the psychology of the individual regardless of personality and individual differences. The Summer Camp Experiments of Sherif and Sherif (1969, cited in Wetherell 1996). used a process of in-group formation and inter-group competition which led to positive identification with the in-group and to overt out-group hostility. They found that specific psychological tendencies were not necessary for this to occur, and concluded that [T]he objective relationship between two groups causes the various subjective or psychological states characteristic of intergroup relations. Tajfel and Turners (1979, cited in Wetherell 1996) Social Identity Theory (S.I.T) based on the findings of the Minimal Group Experiments goes further in identifying the particular processes that occur in individuals when they are in groups. The minimal group idea removed circumstantial factors by taking the extreme case of a group defined by the mere recognition of it. Using schoolchildren, groups were created ostensibly from arbitrary categorisation according to stated preference for the work of either Klee or Kandinsky. Tasks showed that individuals consistently gave preferential treatment to their own group even where there was no-contact between members and there was no overt self-interest involved. They concluded that competition for goals is not required for group conflict, but that conflict occurs due to the self-esteem of the individual being tied to the status of the group. This happens through a process of social categorization, social identification where individuals self-categorizes themselves as group members and attach value to that membership, and social comparison with out-groups. Some of the problems of S.I.T. reflect the wider limitations of experimental work on groups. The sense of belongingness required for defining a group seems to be activated too easily by the individual in isolation. This presents two problems. First, such sensitive activation makes it difficult to determine which single or combination of groups an individual is being influenced by at any one time. Second, if I read the Financial Times and feel a sense of belonging and esteem by doing so, it is not clear whether this says anything at all about the group called Financial Times Readers. Whilst group conflict experiments show that no particular personality traits or circumstances are needed for individuals to be affected by group membership, the analysis still fails to enter the domain of the group because the processes identified are not essentially at the system level. Sapsfords (1996, p70) Domains of Analysis tool might usefully be employed to examine the experimental approach to groups. Group experiments based on participants having effects on each other are within the interpersonal/personal domain which [T]reats the person as a whole living interaction and relationship with other people, but analytically separate from the.[which] presupposes the idea of the individual or person as something distinct from the social world. The experimental methodology therefore prevents work on groups from being located, as might be expected, in the domain of the group. This domain [I]s concerned with what people create between them though not primarily with what participating individuals do and think; the focus is either on the system of which the individuals are a part or the meanings they create between them. Social constructionist and psychodynamic perspectives on groups fit more neatly into this domain, since the group itself is seen as the fundamental unit of analysis. The group psychodynamic paradigm offers a more inclusive vision of group processes. Aschbach and Schermer (1994, adapted in Morgan and Thomas, 1996, p77) describe the paradigm across three systems. First, the internal/intrapsychic systems of each individual in the group including unconscious motivations; Second, systems of communications, both conscious and unconscious between two or more individuals; Finally, The group as group. Some psychodynamic work on groups differs in assumptions from the experimental approach whilst still retaining a focus on what happens to individuals in groups. Instead of measurable behaviour there is an emphasis on subjective experience, a dynamic unconscious and the influence of primitive motivations within the group context. However, it is in the notion of the group mind that the approaches can be most clearly distinguished. Turner (1984, cited in Morgan and Thomas 1996, p68) forthrightly rejects the concept: It is a basic assumption of modern psychology that psychological processes reside only in individuals in the most literal sense, at least, there is no such thing as a group mind'. Thus it would seem that there are no surprises in what experimental evidence can tell us about what goes on in groups. Scientific positivism is scientific positivism. Whilst it is shown that individuals are complex and do not react in just one way, patterns of influence are described in cause-and-effect terms without recourse to emergent properties. The value that we place on this evidence depends on how we define a group. If it is simply a collection of people with affiliation then we must accept that group experiments are some of the most interesting and telling in psychology. But, if we incorporate the possibility of a groupishness (Bions word) beyond that collection, then experiments can contribute little to our knowledge of the group so defined.
Thursday, March 12, 2020
Bose, Marketing Paper essays Bose is the most technological and scientific speaker produced on the market right now. The company, Bose has been around for awhile producing excellent sound systems for homes and cars. Bose has conducted an extreme amount of research on the quality of sound and speakers made around the world to set them selves for ahead of every other manufactures. Their Website, www.Bose.com, is extremely easy to remember. Bose website is pretty technological and requires a certain browsers' plug-in to get to certain parts of their website. Bose gives you their plug-in for free and shows you how to download and install it. With people moving into the twenty- first century computers and online shopping are going to be the wave of the future. Shopping on Bose website makes in easy and they have lower price than what you would get at a retail store. You are able to search for whatever speaker system you desire; all the way from computers, to home theater systems. You dont have to become a membe r to shop on Bose website either, like some other online stereo sites make you do. Target Market = the target market for Bose is more for the middle class and up. The product that Bose offers is high quality sound system equipment; all the way from home theater systems, automobile speakers to computer surround sound. Their web page is set up as a very technological site, meaning that their product is of high quality and a little bit more expensive than if you were to go to Wal-Mart looking for a stereo system. You can see some promotional effort with their car stereo system. Bose uses certain cars like Acura, Audi, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Infiniti, Mazda, Mercedes-Benz, Nissan and Pontiac to help the target market see where they range. I think the age group that Bose is trying to reach is of an older group starting at nineteen and up. Every one listens to something and they love to listen to it on a good quality sound system. In my opinion,...
Monday, February 24, 2020
About the University - Case Study Example The organization will also be focused on offering a chance to pursue various programs without interferences, thereby eliminating hindrances brought about by various internal and external factors. Besides, this organization will be located in an area with tranquility in order to provide students with favorable environment for studying. Developing Global Goals for the Organization Social cognitive theory focuses on self-efficacy or self-direction, which is considered crucial being a predictor of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviors. Bandura (1997) establishes a shift regarding peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction towards the past, present and future. Moreover, he argues that human behaviors are guided by their goals and results, which are projected into their future (Bandura, 1997). Crucial reflection of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s self-efficacy is facilitated by their ability to control themselves and establish a self-reflection. There are situation that in this organization people may fail to live up to the standards that they have set for themselves. Nonetheless, there are researchers, which have been conducted by Bandura (1977) in the field of social cognitive theory, whereby he recognizes the actions that results to peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to process information and make choices in accordance to the things they know in regard to consequences of their actions or actions of others. Team Development and Leadership Perspective As the team leader there is need to set dates for checking on the progress with the other members of team in order to facilitate its development. Moreover, this helped us to maintain the cohesiveness of the group and ensure that everyone behaving in accordance to the expectations of the group. There are three of the mostÃ substantialÃ traits that a good leader should have in order to facilitate team development; in fact, these traitsÃ are elaborated on the basis of leadership theories. According to Fiedler and Garcia (1987), one of the traitsÃ is explainedÃ in the Contingency Theories which expects theÃ successfulÃ leaders be able to identify the clues in the environment and that they adapt with their leader behavior in order to meet the differentiated needs of their followers. The VroomÃ leadershipÃ theory expects them to participate in decision making. It also provides a set of rules for determination of participative decision making. The third trait is TransformationalÃ leadershipÃ that combines the behavioral theories with the trait theories, while being a Transactional leader I will guideÃ my group in theÃ directionÃ that will establishÃ objectiveÃ by clarify task requirements. Human Development Perspective While managing the human resource in this university, there will be need to focus on satisfying employees psychological and social needs. In this case, the psychological needs will involve motivating them to exercise persona control of their actions and self-efficacy. On the other hand, satisfaction of their soc ial needs will be achieved by empowering them by modeling programs of personal control in terms of the way they can cope with stress or criticism; in fact, this will involve offering them skills to enables them cope with circumstances that they are likely to face during their daily operations. In addition, empowerment will involve provision of relevant sources of knowledge, skills, and convictions, which can allow employees to control their lives. Diversity/Multicultural Perspective There is an interpretation of diversity, which includes the ways in